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綦江源头考
2017年 12月 20日 18:24:50  来源: 本站原创 编辑: 陶玲 责任编辑: 马小玲

綦江区位于重庆市南部,地处四川盆地与云贵高原结合部,地势南高北低,以山地、丘陵为主。最高峰石壕镇万隆老鹰岩海拔1848米,做为“母亲河”的綦江河(后面简称“綦江”)就发源在这里。然而长期以来,一些文章记载的是“(綦)江发源夜郎”“贵州仙源镇大獐村”“贵州花坝火盆洞”等等。那么綦江的源头到底在哪里呢?

“饮水思源”是中国人的传统,也是其它国家的人同样有的美德。但迄今为止,国内外尚无一个确定河源的统一标准。前苏联大百科全书指“河源是河流开始的地方”;我国《辞海》对河源的解释是“河流补给的源头,通常是溪涧、泉水、冰川、沼泽或湖泊”;《现代汉语词典》解释“源头是水流发源的地方”。归纳起来主要有两方面的因素,即自然因素和社会因素。具体讲就是“长度最长、海拔最高、水量最大,同时考虑流域面积,历史习惯等确定源头。”但是同时满足上述所有标准的源头是不多的,事实上都依据了“河源唯远”的原则。因为河流的长度是一个稳定、可靠,而且可以进行重复观测的指标。

按照以上原则,2015年3--7月,綦江区政协、水务局、石壕镇组建联合考察组实地寻找和踏勘了綦江的源头,并将结果上报市水利部门,得到了确认,即綦江的源头在綦江区石壕镇万隆村大垭口老鹰岩。本文将此前的观点与实地踏勘的情况对比如下,以当正本清源。

石壕花坝全景 左边最高处为綦河发源地:石壕镇老鹰岩。通讯员 张健 李忠朴 摄

“发源夜郎”说

持有这种观点的人是采纳了明代曹学佺的论点,其中也包括了《道光綦江县志》。这也难怪在那交通不便的情况下,有多少人能徒步爬山涉水踏勘、寻找河流源头呢?既然曹学佺已经有了结论,那就“照本宣科”吧。

曹学佺是何许人士?据《福建大学学报》2012年第五期刊载的《曹学佺年表》一文:曹学佺(1574——1647年),字能始,号石仓,明朝侯官(今福建福州)洪山里人,万历二十三年(1595年)进士,初任户部主事,后先后在四川、广西诸省任职,到南明唐王时官至尚书,加太子太保。据说曹学佺在参加殿试的时候,因其“舟战论”定为第一。他毕生好学,对文学、诗词、地理、天文、禅理、音律、诸子百家等都有研究。正是因为他在任四川右参政和四川按察使期间,踏访了四川的山山水水,写下了《蜀中名胜记》。不知道曹学佺是否全程踏勘过綦江的源头,还是只见到了綦江的水来自贵州桐梓的夜郎,不知道前面还有很长的距离?总之他笔下记载的是“(綦)江发源夜郎”。对于这样有名望的人,谁会想到他也有不足的地方呢。后来在编写《道光綦江县志》时,编写人员就直接采纳了这个观点。

“贵州仙源说”

“贵州仙源说”的观点来自《中国河湖大典》《四川江河一览》《习水县志》。据《中国河湖大典》(长江卷),綦江发源于海拔1448米的贵州省习水县仙源镇黄瓜垭大獐村河坝组。为此,当地还立有一块“綦江源”的石碑。(插图:綦江源)

但此观点仅从《中国江湖大典》的附图上就知道不准确,图上的綦江河上游在距仙源镇不远的关木山有一个分叉,一头是仙源镇,另一头是石壕镇万隆村方向,也就是说綦江河在贵州“关木山”以前有两个源头,一个出自贵州的仙源,到关木山是14.2公里;另一个来自綦江石壕镇的万隆(此时暂且不论长度)。因此把仙源镇说成是綦江的源头是不对的,至少是不准确的或者说是“断章”取义的说辞。

《中国江河湖海大典》上綦河发源地图片。

“花坝火盆洞说”

据1990年出版的《綦江县志》:綦江(河)发源于贵州省桐梓县华山乡所属的花坝火盆洞,流经綦江县万隆乡(现石壕镇万隆村)的花坝于小垭口消入地下……。持有这种观点的还有遵义地区志《水利志》等官方的记载。

对于这种观点,先不说其正确与否,仅从地理位置的介绍就有误。凡是到过石壕镇万隆村的人都知道,花坝与火盆洞不是一个地方。花坝属于重庆市和贵州省共有,大部属贵州,火盆洞是其最底部属于贵州省桐梓县原华山乡,海拔1546米。花坝的最高峰老鹰岩属綦江区,海拔高度是1848米。不知道什么原因?在描述綦江源头时,这两个地点就合在一起了:“花坝就是火盆洞,火盆洞就是花坝。”

实际情况是火盆洞以上有四条小溪,汇集到了“桐梓县原华山乡的火盆洞,流经石壕万隆,于小垭口消入地下,暗流在长河沟冒出,明流50米后又消入地下,暗流约1.5公里,在杉树湾干龙洞出水,南流约3公里至綦江县与桐梓、习水两县交界的流水岩后,南下至习水县的关木山处与来自习水县原仙源乡下河坝之水汇合,……”,自此形成了奔流不息的綦江。

可能是来自花坝的小溪没引起人们的注意,只看到了集中在火盆洞的水;也或者是当年勘察綦江源头的人在记录时笔误,将两个地点合在一起,成就了綦江源头这个美丽的名字“花坝火盆洞”。

其实这个失误不仅仅只在这里,考察组又在“关木山”将来自仙源的水与来自万隆的水做了流量检测:来自仙源镇的水量是0.382/秒立方米,来自万隆场的水量是0.739/秒立方米。然后,考察组对火盆洞前面的四条小溪分别做了跟踪,最后发现来自石壕镇万隆村大垭口老鹰岩半山的流水最长。

老鹰岩是綦江区的最高峰,海拔有1848米。在其海拔1603米的半山处,有非常旺盛的水流出来,往下流到了花坝,再往前就与火盆洞的水汇集一起了。从老鹰岩半山的洞中泉水,到火盆洞的路程有3.4公里。(插图:綦江水务局文件)

到此,将以上情况梳理成下表:

源头名称 长度(千米) 海拔(米) 汇合处流量(m2/秒) 綦江全长(公里)

贵州省习水县仙源镇黄瓜垭大獐村河坝组至关木山 14.2 1448 0.328 220

贵州省桐梓县花坝火盆洞至关木山 16.4 1546 0.739 231.3

重庆市綦江区石壕镇万隆村大垭口老鹰岩(经花坝火盆洞)至关木山 19.8 1603 0.739 231.3+3.4=234.7

从此表可以知道:无论是海拔高度,还是水流长度和流量大小,石壕镇万隆村大垭口老鹰岩的出水都超过其它分支,可以确定綦江河源就是:中国重庆市綦江区石壕镇万隆村大垭口老鹰岩。全长:234.7公里。

 

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